The idea of seamlessness chliotis analyze pattern and ornament and fluency becomes the current par- in the age of digital technology. Along with four other theorists, Gleiniger and Vrachliotis argue that the new ornament, which emerges by means of digital technology, derives from pat- tern and pattern formation. Dwelling on the topics of algorithm, behavioral pattern, neuroscientific pattern, and musical pattern, the authors investigate global expansions of ornament in the digital age.
Contemporary literature explores ornament from a broad perspective of science, engineering, mathematics, music, and so on, rather than reducing it to architectural scale. The theorists argue that the reemergence of orna- ment in contemporary architectural theory and practice is grounded on the advanced technology of comput- Figure 3. Consequently, they tend to London, UK, Blurring the build- cepts of scripture, algorithm, morphol- ing scale, dazzling tessellations create ogy, deformation, distortion, evolu- a visual play, and produce affects and tion, formation, mutation, generation, sensations, as also proposed by Farshid transformation, and variation.
Yet the in- vocabulary of ornament, such as pix- tention of representing the novelty of ellization, porosity, fractal, digital, and advanced technology resonates more virtual. Besides, pattern in its broadest to the argument of the architect Rob- sense has been included to the research ert Levit who stresses that or- area of ornament, as it consists of the nament in contemporary architecture concepts of sequential, dynamic, con- associates more to the symbolic aspect figurative, informative, performative, than the sensual and the functional.
Islamic Art and Architecture
Charles Jencks fine ornament according to their own argues that an iconic building design approaches. Contemporary architects use ad- vanced technology with an intention to demonstrate their virtuosity in design- ing and producing surface effects. The monolithic building is covered with 28, aluminium tiles in different siz- Figure 4.
Outer and inner details of the UK Beijing, China, Pavilion, Heatherwick, Shanghai, As a case, with functional and aesthetic dimen- the United Kingdom Expo Pavilion in sions, rather than dealing with signs. With an intention to ed out of 60, transparent fiber optic avoid rapid consumption and the terri- rods, each of which displays a differ- tory of superficiality by reducing to an ent seed at the tip. Inside the building, obvious denotation, the enigmatic sig- the assemblage of the displayed seeds nifier reveals connotations through an forms curvilinear patterns all over, in-depth narrative, representation, and whereas on the outside, the tips of the interpretation.
Beijing National Aquat- seeds form a hairy texture. Built by effects by patterns that are perceived the Australian architecture office PTW differently when seen from a distance Architects in collaboration with Arup and up close.
Ornament as the representation of culture has long been one of its prima- ry applications. Ubiquitously seen in public buildings, especially in exposi- tion constructions, ornament becomes a tool of public promotion and repre- sentation for commercial success.
As Umberto Eco states, in an expo, architecture emerges first as a message, Figure 7. USA, The Louis Vuitton Alejandro Zaero-Polo criticizes the Store in the 5th Avenue of New York, representation of the building function built by the Japanese architect Jun Aoki through surface ornaments Van Raaij, in , can be attributed as one of For him, ornament should con- the contemporary conceptions of the form to the building context, its envi- decorated shed Figure 7.
The ronment or local culture. The ornamental element, which was made of cast aluminium with a re- lief-like structure, functions as a kind of fence for private accesses to ground floor terraces, as much as it sends the curious looks of passersby away from the ground floor windows.
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Being an interpretation of the urban graffiti cul- ture, the ornamental fence composes a graphic pattern that extends through the aluminium and wooden surfaces of the outer cladding and the interior decoration. Contemporary architecture has long been an experimental ground for in- tegrating ornamental elements as a part of load-bearing elements with an intention to construct structural orna- ment. As Jencks further elab- orates, ornament becomes necessary when it is integral to architecture as in the sense of structural ornament.
As while changing colors. In accordance with the increas- from being an applied decoration. To develop critical assess- intrinsic element. Blurring the strict ments, this issue is explored in recent borders of structure and ornament, the architectural texts. Van Raaij contemporary application of structural points to the current global trend of ornament emerges as a hybrid element. In this sense, technol- ogy helps the production of noncon- ventional ornamental elements, which cannot be produced by conventional tools and methods. With an emphasis on temporality, it creates dichotomies of materiality and immateriality, per- manence and temporality.
In the case of the House of Industry, neon lights turn the Figure House of Industry, Transform Architects, Copenhagen, building into spectacle at the center of Denmark, Baudrillard b make them reveal different ornamental argues that the industry of semiotics dimensions. The dominating paradigm of nament, as much as it reinterprets the visuality turns bodily presence into traditional applications of representing spectacle, media, and image, and links culture, function, brand, power, and the spectacle to the social demand of context.
In the light of the case studies, astonishment and amazement. The crit- attention and to present spectacle. In icism of spectacle in current architec- this sense, the advancement of digital tural domain consists of immaterial technology becomes a tool, rather than aspects of image, including flow, den- a motive and a primary ground of jus- sity, frequency, pixel, resolution, color, tification. Today, image is reproduced infinitely 4. Ornaments of the spectacle in the spectacle-laden public sphere, Today in the age of visual commu- so that the people are subjected to ab- nication, a flood of images dominates sorb a profusion of images every day.
Beginning Correspondingly, in an image-driv- with the twentieth-century widespread en culture, much emphasis is given to use of photography, advertising, and visuality, surface, and surface effects publishing technology, mass media without the intention of contemplation expanded worldwide by transforming but only consumption.
The grammar of ornament
Contemporary In parallel, ornament in contem- culture is represented by the accumu- porary architecture contributes to lation of spectacles, which mediates the image-making, commercial success, social relation among people. In this and marketing strategy, as much as it sense, spectacle refers to consuming becomes a designerly instrument of products for their sign values, such as achieving astonishment. As seen from appearance, fame, and public attention, the case studies that sample ornament rather than their use values. Benjamin tinuously highlights that ornament in deciphers the modern metrop- contemporary architecture has a new olis as an endless spectacle, a visual definition and aspect.
As this study show of spectacular images, diora- demonstrates, ornament has a variety mas, tempting dreams, and a realm of of layers. The world of and capitalism. Architecture relates to wrestling. In Mythologies 25th ed. Lavers, Trans.
I offer you one example. All are familiar with the beautiful shell of the nautilus. Give the nautilus itself to a mathematician, and he will show you that one secret of its gracefulness lies in its following in its volute or whorl a particular geometrical curve with rigid precision. Pass it from the mathematician to the natural philosopher, and he will show you how the simple superposition of a great number of very thin transparent plates, and the close  approximation of a multitude of very fine engraved lines, are the cause of its exquisite pearly lustre.
Pass it from the natural philosopher to the engineer, and he will show you that this fairy shell is a most perfect practical machine, at once a sailing vessel and a diving-bell, in which its living possessor had, centuries before Archimedes, applied to utilitarian ends the law of specific gravity, and centuries before Halley had dived in his bell to the bottom of the sea. Pass it from the engineer to the anatomist, and he will show you how, without marring its beauty, it is occupied during its lifetime with a most orderly system of rowing and sailing tackle, chambers for food, pumps to keep blood circulating, ventilating apparatus, and hands to control all, so that it is a model ship with a model mariner on board.
Pass it lastly from the anatomist to the chemist, and he will show you that every part of the shell and the creature is compounded of elements, the relative weights of which follow in each individual nautilus the same numerically identical ratio. In respect to this subject, Mr. Owen Jones has said: "The nave and aisles of a Gothic church become absurd when filled with pews for Protestant worship, where all are required to see and hear.
The columns of the nave which impede sight and sound, the aisles for processions which no longer exist, rood screens, and deep chancels for the concealment of mysteries, now no longer such, are all so many useless reproductions which must be thrown aside. Digby Wyatt has said: "Infinite variety and unerring fitness govern all forms in Nature.
Eastlake, that "In every case in Nature where fitness or utility can be traced, the characteristic quality, or relative beauty, is found to be identical with that of fitness. Pugin the father : "How many objects of ordinary use are rendered monstrous and ridiculous simply because the artist, instead of seeking the most convenient form, and then decorating it, has embodied some extravagance to  conceal the real purpose for which the article has been made.
This is seen in the ease of the species of fir which grow at great altitudes, where the leaves are more like needles than leaves such as commonly occur; and also in the species of heath which grow upon exposed moors: in both cases the plants are, owing to the form of the leaf, enabled to defy the blast, while those with broad leaves would be shattered and destroyed. The stems are in both cases woody and flexible, so that while they bend to the wind they resist its destroying influence by their strength and elasticity.
In relation to the stem of the papyrus," which is a plant constantly met with in Egyptian ornaments, "the late Sir W. Hooker mentions an interesting fact which manifests adaptation to its position. This plant grows in water, and attaches itself to the margins of rivers and streams, by sending forth roots and evolving long underground stems in the alluvium of the sides of the waters. Owing to its position it is exposed to the influences of the current, which it has to withstand, and this it does, not only by having its stems of a triangular form—a shape well adapted for withstanding pressure—but also by having them so placed in relation to the direction of the stream, that one angle always meets the current, and thus separates the waters as does the bow of a modern steam-ship.
I might multiply illustrations of this principle of fitness , or adaptation to purpose , as manifested in plants, to an almost indefinite extent; but when all had been said we should yet have but the simple truth before us, that the chief end which we should have in creating any object, is that of rendering it perfectly fitted to answer the proposed end. If those works which are beautiful were but invariably useful, as they should be; if those objects which are most beautiful were also the most convenient—and there is no reason why they should not be so—how the beautiful would become loved and sought after!
Cost would be of little moment, the price would not be complained of, if beautiful objects were works of perfect utility.
But, alas! This very fact has given rise to the highly absurd fashion of having a second poker in a drawing-room set of fire-irons. The one poker is ornamental, possibly, but it is to be looked at; the other is for use, and as it is not to be looked at, it is hidden away in some corner, or close within the fender. I do not wonder at the second poker being required; for  nineteen out of every twenty pokers of an ornamental? But why not abolish the detestable thing altogether? If the poker is to be retained as an ornament, place it on the table or chimney-piece of your drawing-room, and not down on the hearth, where it is at such a distance from the eye that its beauties cannot be discovered.
It is no use saying it would be out of place in such a position. If to poke the fire with, its place is within the fender; if it is an ornament, it should be placed where it can be best seen—in a glass case, if worthy of protection. I hope that sufficient has now been said upon this all-important necessity, that, if an object is to be beautiful it should also be useful, to cause us to consider it as a primary principle of design that all objects which we create must be useful.
To this as a first law we shall constantly have to refer. When we construct a chair we shall ask, is it useful? When we design a bottle we shall inquire, is it useful? When we create a gas-branch we shall ask, does it fulfil all requirements, and perfectly answer the end for which it is intended? And in relation to patterns merely we shall also have to make similar inquiries. Thus, if drawing a carpet design, we shall inquire, is this form of ornament suitable to a woven fabric? Such inquiries we shall put respecting any object the formation of which we may suggest: hence, in all our inquiries, I shall, as I love art, consider utility before beauty, in order that my art may be fostered and not despised.
There are many subjects yet not named in these pages which we ought to consider, but I must content myself by merely mentioning them, and you must be willing to think of them, and consider them with such care as their importance may demand. Some of them, however, we shall refer to when considering the various manufactures.
A principle of great importance in respect to design is, that the material of which an object is formed should be used in a manner consistent with its own nature, and in that particular way in which it can be most easily "worked. Another principle of equal importance with that just set forth, is this: that when an object is about to be formed, that material or those materials which is or are most appropriate to its formation should be sought and employed. These two  propositions are of very great importance, and the principles which they set forth should never be lost sight of by the designer.
They involve the first principles of successful designing, for if ignored the work produced cannot be satisfactory. Curves will be found to be beautiful just as they are subtle in character; those which are most subtle in character being most beautiful. The arc is the least beautiful of curves I do not here speak of a circle, but of the line, as a line, which bounds the circle ; being struck from one centre its origin is instantly detected, while the mind requires that a line, the contemplation of which shall be pleasurable, must be in advance of its knowledge, and call into activity its powers of inquiry.
The elliptic curve, or curve bounding the ellipse, is more beautiful than the arc, for its origin is not so strikingly apparent, being formed from two centres. The curve of the egg is more beautiful still, being formed from three centres. A surface must never be divided for the purpose of decoration into halves.